T.I.M.E. to Heal: Exploring a Key Wound Management Framework

Since its inception in 2003, the T.I.M.E. framework has quietly revolutionized wound care practice, becoming a gold standard in wound care management. Explore this educational blog post to gain deep insights into how T.I.M.E. can empower healthcare professionals, optimizing patient outcomes with precision assessment and strategic treatment.


Wound care is a critical aspect of healthcare that aims to facilitate the healing process, prevent infection, and promote optimal tissue regeneration. Over the years, several wound care management frameworks have been developed to guide healthcare professionals in providing the best possible care. One such effective framework is the T.I.M.E. framework, which focuses on wound assessment and treatment planning. In this educational blog post, we will explore the early history of wound bed preparation and the T.I.M.E. framework.

Healing Wounds Properly

Wound bed preparation has been studied for over two decades in human medicine and is recognized worldwide for its effectiveness in managing challenging wounds. It is a dynamic concept that is constantly evolving and provides a structured approach to wound management. Normal wound healing is a complex series of overlapping events that are interlinked and interdependent. Unfortunately, not all wounds follow this complex model of wound healing.

When it comes to healing hard-to-treat wounds, wound bed preparation emphasizes a holistic and systematic approach to evaluating and removing barriers to the healing process, allowing the wound healing process to progress normally². It guides the development of appropriate treatment strategies targeting both the patient in general and the underlying disease that caused the wound. To this end, therapeutic agents are optimized to accelerate endogenous healing or increase the effectiveness of advanced therapies³.

A Brief History of Wound Bed Preparation

The concept of wound bed preparation was introduced by Dr. Vincent Falanga (Professor of Dermatology and Biochemistry at the Boston University School of Medicine) and Dr. Gary Sibbald (Professor of Public Health Sciences and Medicine at the University of Toronto) in 2000 based on their extensive experience in the management of chronic wounds⁶. It initially focused on the management of the wound exudates, bacterial balance and devitalized tissue. In 2003, the International Wound Bed Preparation Advisory Board established an algorithmic approach to this process with the development of the ‘T.I.M.E.’ acronym⁷⁻⁸. Dr. Sibbald updated the concept in 2006 with an emphasis on treating the cause and patient general factors that impair wound healing and on patient-centred concerns prior to treating the local wound factors. It was further updated and made more comprehensive in 2011 with links to evidence-based literature, expert opinions and clinical practice-based strategies¹¹.

The T.I.M.E. framework comprises the comprehensive strategies that can be applied to the management of different types of wounds to maximize the potential for wound healing.

Person holding a mini clock

The T.I.M.E. Framework

The TIME framework is a systematic approach used by healthcare professionals to assess and manage different types of wounds effectively¹. It was introduced in 2003 by Professor Gary Sibbald and his colleagues and has since become a widely accepted standard in wound care¹. The acronym "T.I.M.E." represents four fundamental aspects that are assessed and addressed during wound evaluation¹:

T - Tissue

This element evaluates the types of tissues present in the wound bed. It categorizes wounds into one of four stages based on the amount and type of tissue:

  • Necrotic: Wounds with dead tissue that hinders the healing process.
  • Slough: Wounds with non-viable, yellow-ish tissue.
  • Granulation: Wounds with healthy, red granulation tissue that indicates healing progress.
  • Epithelialization: Wounds where new skin cells are forming at the wound edges.

I - Infection/Inflammation

Infection can significantly delay wound healing. In this step, healthcare professionals assess the wound for signs of infection, such as redness, heat, swelling, pain, and purulent exudate. Early detection and management of infection are crucial for successful wound healing.

M - Moisture

Maintaining the right level of moisture in a wound is essential for proper healing. Excess moisture (wet wounds) or insufficient moisture (dry wounds) can hinder the healing process. The T.I.M.E. framework emphasizes creating an optimal moist environment to promote tissue regeneration.

E - Edges

The wound's edges play a vital role in the healing process. Healthy wound edges exhibit epithelialization and actively advance towards the wound centre. In contrast, irregular, undermined, or rolled edges may indicate complications that require specialized treatment.

Doctors and nurses speaking to each other in a hospital hallway

Why T.I.M.E.?

The applicability and benefits of the T.I.M.E. framework in professional healthcare settings are substantial. In an era where evidence-based practices are paramount, this systematic approach provides a structured and standardized methodology for wound assessment and treatment planning¹. The framework's focus on tissue types, infection/inflammation, moisture levels, and wound edges allows healthcare professionals to precisely diagnose the wound's status and tailor interventions accordingly. This targeted approach not only streamlines decision-making but also optimizes resource allocation by ensuring that treatments are aligned with the wound's specific needs¹⁻¹¹. By adopting the T.I.M.E. framework, healthcare providers can foster efficient communication and collaboration among multidisciplinary teams, resulting in more cohesive care plans¹⁻¹¹. Ultimately, the framework's versatility and adaptability make it an indispensable tool for guiding wound management strategies and driving better patient outcomes.

A Promising Future for Wound Management

Incorporating the T.I.M.E. framework into wound care practices has arguably revolutionized the approach to wound assessment and management, leading to more effective outcomes and improved patient well-being¹⁻¹¹.

This framework focuses on the critical aspects of tissue, infection/inflammation, moisture, and edge conditions. By doing so, healthcare professionals are equipped with a comprehensive strategy to address the multifaceted challenges that wounds can present.

The T.I.M.E. framework offers a systematic approach that not only enhances the quality of care but also signifies a significant step forward in elevating patient outcomes. By embracing these principles, healthcare providers can ensure better wound healing and offer a higher standard of holistic and tailored patient care, setting a promising course for the future of wound management.


  1. Fletcher, J. (2007). Wound assessment and the TIME framework. British journal of nursing, 16(8), 462-466.
  2. Falanga, V. (2004). Wound bed preparation: science applied to practice. European Wound Management Association (EWMA). Position Document: Wound Bed Preparation in Practice. London: MEP Ltd, 2-5.
  3. Panuncialman, J., & Falanga, V. (2009). The science of wound bed preparation. Surgical Clinics of North America, 89(3), 611-626.
  4. Falanga, V. (2000). Classifications for wound bed preparation and stimulation of chronic wounds. Wound repair and regeneration, 8(5), 347-352.
  5. Dowsett, C. (2002). The role of the nurse in wound bed preparation. Nursing Standard (through 2013), 16(44), 69.
  6. Knox, K. R., Datiashvili, R. O., & Granick, M. S. (2007). Surgical wound bed preparation of chronic and acute wounds. Clinics in plastic surgery, 34(4), 633-641.
  7. Sibbald, R. G., Williamson, D., Orsted, H. L., Campbell, K., Keast, D., Krasner, D., & Sibbald, D. (2000). Preparing the wound bed--debridement, bacterial balance, and moisture balance. Ostomy/wound management, 46(11), 14-22.
  8. Sibbald, R. G., Orsted, H., Schultz, G. S., Coutts, P., & Keast, D. (2003). Preparing the wound bed 2003: focus on infection and inflammation. Ostomy Wound Management, 49(11), 24-51.
  9. Schultz, G. S., Sibbald, R. G., Falanga, V., Ayello, E. A., Dowsett, C., Harding, K., ... & Vanscheidt, W. (2003). Wound bed preparation: a systematic approach to wound management. Wound repair and regeneration, 11, S1-S28.
  10. Sibbald, R. G., Orsted, H. L., Coutts, P. M., & Keast, D. H. (2007). Best practice recommendations for preparing the wound bed: update 2006. Advances in skin & wound care, 20(7), 390-405.
  11. Sibbald, R. G., Goodman, L., Woo, K. Y., Smart, H., Tariq, G., Ayello, E. A., ... & Salcido, R. (2011). Special considerations in wound bed preparation 2011: an update: wound bed preparation. Wound Healing Southern Africa, 4(2), 55-72.

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